5 Food Myths Debunked: Leek-ing All The Secrets!

Written by Maria Olivia Laurent, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

You’ve seen chefs recommending what recipes to follow to lose weight. You’ve seen nutritionists writing pages upon pages on the correct diet based on your body type. You’ve even seen some celebrities going on their social media giving health advice to their followers. Everything around us influences the way we eat. And with all of the info out there, it becomes difficult to know what’s true and what’s not, leading to some food myths that you probably have heard countless times circulating in society. A food myth is a misconception about food and how they affect our bodies. It may come from the latest diet trends, other people’s experiences, and different health blogs writing different things. However, people need to realize that these food myths remain as they are, simply a myth that has no scientific proof. 

Food and diet are personal. One thing may work for others but not for you, and vice versa. Believing in only what other people say may negatively impact your diet, and you’ll miss out on some good food benefits. Maintaining a good, healthy lifestyle may be challenging despite our best efforts, but indulging in these myths will only make it worse. Here are 5 food myths and the real facts behind them—get ready, some may really surprise you. 

  1. Sugar-free + Gluten-free = Problems-free?

These two labels are everywhere now. Sugar-free ice cream. Gluten-free cookies. Are sugar and gluten truly necessary to cut for a healthier diet? Yes and no. Why? Because when something is labeled sugar-free, they often remove the sugar but replace it with harmful chemicals to mimic the sweet taste. These ‘healthy alternatives’ contain artificial sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharine. Though virtually calorie-free, they lead to obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolism failure, and other high-risk illnesses. The same thing goes with gluten-free food. Unless you have gluten intolerance, which is only in 1% of the population that you won’t even realize you have them, you can really benefit from the fiber and other nutrients found in these foods. So instead of completely cutting off sugar and gluten, you should go for a more balanced natural diet where you consume them in a proportional quantity. 

  1. Fat makes you fat

Well first, what kind of fat? People often think of fat as the stuff that makes you want to photoshop the hell out of your pics, but hey, healthy fat exists too! Healthy fats can be found in nuts, salmon, or olive oil, and they help lower blood pressure and keep you fuller longer. Fat-free food goes through a process that removes ALL of the healthy nutritional fat and replaces it with tons of sugar. And lack of good fatty acids results in low energy, eczema, and kidney failure. Experts suggest that rather than going fat-free, go for a low-fat diet with more fruit and vegetable intake. Don’t be fooled by that fake organic packaging, peeps! 

  1. Choleggsterol 

As an egg lover, I felt pretty sad when they said to throw out the egg yolk because it’s full of cholesterol. So I decided to do some little research myself to crack this assumption. Eggs indeed increase your cholesterol level… if you eat a whole crate of them every single day. As long as you consume them in moderation, you don’t have to worry about it, especially when the benefits of eggs far outweigh this cholesterol issue. How you cook them is also a deciding factor. The ideal ways are boiled, poached, and baked. Sunny side ups, omelettes, and scrambled are also okay, but don’t use too much oil or butter. As one of the most popular breakfast foods ever, eggs can actually help you eat 400 calories LESS per day because they’re high in protein. Eggs are good for weight loss, metabolism, stable blood glucose, and suppressing hunger. “But they still raise cholesterol!” Yes, they do, but it increases good cholesterol or HDL (high-density lipoprotein), which can lower the triglycerides, the risk factor for heart disease, through its Omega-3. 

  1. Bye-bye nuts, bye-bye acne!

This is actually quite tricky. Generally, nuts contain acne-fighting nutrients such as vitamin E, selenium, and magnesium. They protect cells from getting damaged and infected through their antioxidants power that will clear up acne. However, nuts also contain high amounts of phytic acid and Omega-6 acids, the opposite of Omega-3 in terms of increasing inflammation, which can create acne. Furthermore, a lot of people are secretly allergic to nuts, so that can also trigger breaking out. So, what then? Can I still eat nuts?! Again, the emphasis is on moderating your nuts intake and choosing which nuts you eat. Just think of it as various nuts having pros and cons. The safest nuts to eat that still have high protein but don’t lead to acne are macadamia, almonds, hazelnuts, and chestnuts—all of which are low on Omega-6. The worst nuts for acne include pine nuts, walnuts, and peanuts. If you’re allergic to one type of nut, you can try eating other types in tiny amount, or you can do an oral food challenge test with your doctor to specify your food allergy. Choose your nuts wisely and enjoy the benefits!

  1. Healthy foods are yucky yuck

Does a bowl of boring salad make you go blah? Yep from me. Many people refuse to eat healthy because they don’t want to let go of all the flavors in their junk food. I kinda feel this too, to be honest, because whenever I imagine a healthy diet, the picture of a sad limp lettuce and plain white mush immediately pulls me back from crossing over to the other side. But in truth, there are many delicious ways to make healthy food as tasty as it is nutritious. Just like any other dish, it takes a lot of practice and the right recipe to do that. Go to your local market for the freshest products and maybe give your grandma a call for her top-secret recipes. What do you think? 

So that’s it, folks, for some debunked food myths. There are still a whole lot of them you can find on the Internet, like if MSG is evil, or if carrots really help with your eyesight. Just don’t listen to assumptions and don’t follow fake nutritionists on TikTok, and you’ll do great! Happy eating!

References

Baier, L. (2021, August 19). 16 Common Food Myths About Health Food You Still Think Are True. A Sweat Pea Chef. https://www.asweetpeachef.com/myths-about-health-food/#:~:text=A%20food%20myth%20is%20a,that’s%20got%20to%20be%20busted.

Petre, A. (2020, August 19). Artificial Sweeteners: Good or Bad?. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/artificial-sweeteners-good-or-bad#metabolic-syndrome

Romero, M. (2012, March 1). Top 14 Myths About Food and Nutrition. Washingtonian. https://www.washingtonian.com/2012/03/01/top-14-myths-about-food-and-nutrition/

Whiteman, H. (2020, December 17). Is a gluten-free diet good for your health?. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288406

Wood, S. (n.d.). Do Nuts Cause Acne? 11 Nuts Ranked From Best to Worst for Acne. GoodGlowCo. https://goodglow.co/the-best-and-worst-nuts-for-acne

Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs, Accessible yet Abused

Written by Zahara Almira Ramadhan, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

Do you recognize the show Euphoria? It is quite a popular series in which the main character is a drug-addict teenager. It’s scary, honestly, how teenagers’ exposure to drug abuse—be it at home, school, or from their own curiosity—can lead to this condition. That’s why this article will talk about this problem, especially during the commemoration of International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, or also known as World Drug Day, today. World Drug Day is marked on June 26 every year, with the purpose of strengthening the action and cooperation in achieving a world without drug abuse. Individuals, communities, and organizations all over the world are encouraged to take part in raising awareness about drug problems in society. We can contribute by sharing verified facts about drugs, such as the health risks, preventions, and solutions. Today, Project Child Indonesia wants to talk about a common drug problem among teenagers, which is over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse.

What is OTC drug abuse?

Over-the-counter drugs refer to medicines you can buy at a store without a prescription. This might sound harmless, considering that people need generic medicines for common illnesses like flu, cough, or fever. OTC drugs are safe and effective when used accordingly as directed, but they often get misused by taking higher or frequent doses than necessary. This is a form of OTC drug abuse, which is when OTC drugs get used outside of what is medically recommended. OTC drugs often get abused because they are easy to get, inexpensive, legal, and free from age requirements or limits per purchase. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, around 3 million people aged 12 to 25 used OTC cough and cold medicines to get high (Nova Recovery Center, n.d). 

Cough and cold medicines are some of the most common OTC drugs to get abused. The reason is that cough medicines contain an active ingredient called dextromethorphan (DXM), which can make people high and create hallucinations when taken in high doses. Similarly, cold medicines contain an active ingredient named pseudoephedrine, which creates hallucinations and stimulant effects when abused. Other active ingredients in OTC drugs that are often abused to get high are loperamide in anti-diarrhea medicine and dimenhydrinate in motion sickness pills.

Taking a medicine outside of its appropriate dose and purpose will of course affect your body. Think about it as using some tools against its purpose. For example, if you use a knife to eat an apple because you are too lazy to grab a fork, the knife has a huge potential in cutting your mouth or tongue even when you’re being careful with it. Similarly, people who use OTC drugs for their personal favors are harming themselves. Some negative side effects are slurred speech and impaired motor and cognitive skills. Furthermore, long-term abuse can lead to more chronic conditions like memory loss, heart problems, kidney and liver damage, internal stomach bleeding, increased risk for stroke and high blood pressure, addiction, and death.

Yes, you read it right. OTC drug abuse can potentially lead to addiction—for certain OTC drugs, at least. Drugs that contain DXM and loperamide can lead to dependency and addiction. Similar to other addictions, OTC drug addiction is characterized by the inability to stop using the drug despite its negative effects on the person. Therefore, it is never a right choice to abuse or even consider abusing OTC drugs. But, what if we know someone who’s been abusing OTC drugs? What do we do to help? First, let’s familiarize ourselves with the signs of OTC drug abuse.

Many signs of OTC drug abuse are similar to the signs of using illegal drugs, which mainly involve physical and behavioral changes. Physical changes include overeating or undereating, gaining or losing much weight, sleeping too much or too little, and other changes that have been mentioned as the negative side effects. On the other hand, behavioral changes involve losing interest in socializing, poor performance at school or work, and irritability such as anger outbursts or blaming others. If someone you suspect of abusing OTC drugs is a family member or someone you live with, you can start paying attention to how they’ve been taking the drugs. These people may be taking more than the recommended dosage, continuing to take it once the health issue has resolved, or mixing it with alcohol or other OTC drugs carelessly. You may also notice that the scent of medicine is lingering on that person, as well as their personal space and belongings, such as their room and clothes. 

How do we help?

Like common drug addiction, OTC drug abuse and addiction need to be taken care of by professionals. The first step is to detox OTC drugs from the body, followed by rehab or therapy. OTC drug detox refers to medical management that prevents drug withdrawal symptoms and eliminates the physical dependency on the drugs. People who are addicted or have been abusing OTC drugs tend to experience withdrawal symptoms, such as mood swings, anxiety, distress, irritability, and disorientation when they stop using the drugs. A medical detox program may not always be needed for OTC drug withdrawal, but medical monitoring is helpful in ensuring the comfort of the person because they provide clinical support for psychological symptoms.

Next, rehab is needed to solve the underlying causes of the abuse. As you may know, some people tend to look for an instant fix for their personal problems, be it family problems, anxiety, depression, and so forth. This is when rehab takes place to provide behavioral therapy, support groups for recovery, and educational lectures. Therefore, what we can do to help is refer the person to certain recovery programs. Recovering indeed takes a lot of courage; it is not as simple as flushing drugs down the toilet. That’s why people who have been abusing drugs need all the support from their closest ones. Let’s not turn our attention away to ensure that our environment is free from drug abuse. 

References

Nova Recovery Center. (n.d). Over the Counter Drug Addiction: Side Effects, Detox, Withdrawal, and Treatment. Retrieved from: https://novarecoverycenter.com/drugs/over-the-counter-drugs/#h-what-are-the-side-effects-of-otc-drug-abuse 

UAB Medicine News. (n.d). How to Spot Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse in Family Members. Retrieved from: https://www.uabmedicine.org/-/how-to-spot-over-the-counter-drug-abuse-in-family-members 

UNODC. (n.d). International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. Retrieved from: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drugs/index-new.html 

Mindfulness Training: the Mind, the Body, and Breathing in Between

Written by Zahara Almira Ramadhan, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

Would you agree if I say human emotions are hard to be figured out? Ever since we are young, we are rarely given lessons about our emotional well-being. Sure, schools commonly provide “counsellors” who can help when students are in trouble (or when they are the trouble). But what about those who seem perfectly fine? Do they not need lessons about human emotions that are yet to come? No wonder why we have such little understanding about our own emotions: nobody has ever taught us about them.

This lack of understanding about emotional well-being resulted in an increased stress level without knowing how to deal with it. When this keeps going on without help, our lives become an emotional rollercoaster as we experience such unstable emotions. This shouldn’t be the case. We have to create a solution where people can manage their emotions in much, much better ways. 

That’s why Project Child Indonesia conducted mindfulness training for our volunteers. Mindfulness is “the practice of becoming fully aware of the present moment rather than dwelling in the past or projecting into the future” (Scott, 2020). This mindfulness training is one of the mandatory trainings for volunteers of the Online Learning Assistance Program supported by the Australian Government through the Australian Alumni Grant Scheme and administered by Australia Awards in Indonesia. Not only to stimulate volunteers’ emotional intelligence and positive well-being, but this training also provides a space where they can gather and engage in mindful activities together. As they will be the facilitators for our newborn Mindfulness Program, we arranged this training so that they will be more knowledgeable and equipped to act as mindful facilitators. Improving their mental awareness and positive well-being will not only be beneficial for them as individuals, but also for children in Yogyakarta who will participate in lessons and activities carried by them. 

Mindful breathing is key

In the training, we mostly focused on mindful breathing as the key to managing emotions. Our training took place at a very peaceful setting in Bantul, Yogyakarta; being close to nature is a great kick-off for achieving mindfulness. Rolling my mat out on the ground, I could feel the grass tickling beneath me as I sat down. The air was as clear and fresh as ever. My view was rice fields looking bright green. It was such a peaceful space to breathe in, to begin with.

We practiced several breathing techniques to be mindful. The first one is one-sided breathing. One side of our nostrils is intentionally closed so that we are breathing only from one way: left or right. After a few rounds of one-sided breathing, we worked on an alternate breathing technique; we took a breath through the left and breathed out through the right, and vice versa. We worked with our hands and fingers to help with the alternation, as you can see from the picture above. If you notice two fingers are placed at the centre of the forehead, that’s because it is where our third eye chakra takes place. The third eye is commonly known as the gate towards our inner, higher consciousness. Thus, these breathing techniques do not only bring us to work on our breathing, but also to connect with our higher consciousness. 

The participants then gathered around in groups for a reflection. How do we feel after working on our breathing? Do we feel something different in our bodies? Were there any thoughts going on when we focused on breathing? Do we notice any changes at all? The answers vary depending on the individuals. Even for those who didn’t notice anything different at all, they still learned something by listening to how others were feeling (more peaceful, for example). We were given the chance to understand our own and other people’s minds and bodies during this reflection session.

The next breathing technique we worked on was belly breathing. Would you believe it if I say belly breathing is actually hard? I’d never know until the day I tried it myself. 

This technique comes from our common bad habit of breathing, which is shallow breathing. Do you notice that when you are stressed or anxious, you tend to breathe so uncontrollably fast? In other words, you are breathing shallowly through the chest without even reaching the diaphragm. Humans’ normal way of breathing is to reach the diaphragm until it is expanded. However, with shallow breathing, our diaphragm becomes stiff from the lack of movement that it’s supposed to get through our breathing. Thus, in this technique, we had to push the air we inhaled to the belly. We had to make sure our belly expands as we inhale and deflate as we exhale. If our belly does not move at all, that means we are still breathing directly to the lungs without working the diaphragm. 

How does breathing make you mindful?

This is the question that I asked myself at the end of our training. Before we finished the training, we were given one minute of silence to reflect as individuals. We were alone with our mind, body, and breath, grounded in the nature surrounding us. Being able to finally breathe mindfully has given me a whole new perspective on this self-reflection. I realized that I had never breathed mindfully—not because I didn’t want to, but because I didn’t know how. 

I have always realised that it’s difficult for me to breathe when I’m anxious. My mind was loud, my heartbeat racing, and my breathing shallow. Yet I couldn’t slow down any of them. Having practised mindful breathing allowed me to at least sort out one of those problems: difficulty breathing. Now, every time I get anxious, I keep remembering to inhale until my belly expands. Working on this helps me slow down my breathing, and then my heartbeat, and eventually my thoughts. Oftentimes, the key to processing your own emotions is as simple as breathing, mindfully. 

Feeling like you might burst out of anger? Breathe. Extremely disappointed at someone or something? Breathe. Feeling excited, happy, and energized? Still, don’t forget to breathe. Breathing lets you be present in the moment. Not in the past or in the future. We might get angry, disappointed, or remorseful over the past and worry or excited over the future. But we cannot forget that we have to be present for the moment. For our mind, our body, our present moments, and everyone else around us. When we start to become mindful of our well-being, we’ll become mindful of other people too. Just like Project Child Indonesia’s volunteer, who will share this mindfulness knowledge and practices with children in Yogyakarta.

References 

Scott, E. (2020, June 11). What Is Mindfulness?. Verywell Mind. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/mindfulness-the-health-and-stress-relief-benefits-3145189 

Meninggal Karena Begadang, Kok Bisa?

Written by Zahara Almira Ramadhan, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

Sudah banyak berita tentang orang meninggal karena begadang. Salah satu berita yang pernah viral adalah kejadian mahasiswa yang meninggal setelah tujuh hari tidak tidur untuk mengerjakan skripsi. Sebelum meninggal dunia, ia sempat bercerita tentang pengalamannya bolak-balik ke rumah sakit pasca begadang tujuh hari itu. Kesehatannya terus-terusan menurun; ia mengalami gejala demam tinggi, tidak nafsu makan, dan lemas. Dokter pun bingung menduga sumber penyakitnya, mulai dari tipes, penyakit ginjal, TBC, sampai ke penyakit jantung. Nggak lama setelah cerita tersebut tersebar di Twitter, ia meninggal dunia, berdasarkan kabar dari akun Twitter kakaknya. 

Pada tahun 2013, ada juga berita tentang seorang copywriter yang meninggal setelah bekerja selama 30 jam tanpa istirahat. Ia kolaps di sebuah tempat makan dan langsung dilarikan ke rumah sakit, namun ia tidak terselamatkan setelah berada di kondisi koma. Kasus ini tidak hanya terjadi ke mahasiswa dan pekerja, tapi juga seorang remaja yang hobi main game di Thailand. Remaja umur 18 tahun ini sering banget main game sampai larut malam, sampai akhirnya ia ditemukan meninggal di kamarnya sendiri dengan dugaan gagal jantung.

Begadang menyebabkan gagal jantung?

Berdasarkan penelitian, orang yang tidur kurang dari 5 jam berisiko terkena serangan jantung maupun stroke (Ramadhan, 2016). Ramadhan (2016) menjelaskan, ada tiga alasan di balik risiko ini. Pertama, kekurangan tidur menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan hormon ghrelin dan leptin, yaitu hormon yang mengatur pola makan. Saat begadang, orang biasanya selalu ingin makan karena ketidakseimbangan hormon ini, yang akhirnya mengarah ke obesitas. Obesitas dapat menyebabkan tekanan darah tinggi (hipertensi), yang bisa memicu penyakit kardiovaskular seperti serangan jantung dan stroke.

Kedua, kurang tidur bisa membuat penumpukan kalsium di pembuluh darah. Penumpukan ini membentuk plak di dinding pembuluh darah, yang sewaktu-waktu bisa lepas dan menyebabkan penyumbatan pembuluh darah. Penyumbatan ini adalah penyebab lain dari serangan jantung dan stroke. Terakhir, orang yang begadang cenderung merasa lebih stres dan emosional, yang mana mempercepat detak jantung karena kerja dari saraf simpatik. Kalau terus-terusan begini, jantung bisa membengkak atau bahkan gagal berfungsi. Penyakit kardiovaskular seperti inilah yang menjadi sorotan utama penyebab kematian dini karena begadang. Studi di Inggris menemukan bahwa kurang tidur melipatgandakan risiko kematian karena penyakit kardiovaskular (Adhi, 2020). 

Selain itu, minuman berkafein seperti kopi dan minuman berenergi umum dijadikan teman begadang karena efeknya yang bikin kita melek semalaman. Tapi, efek samping lain yang sering diabaikan adalah efeknya ke jantung. Kafein membuat jantung berdebar-debar dan membuat tekanan darah tinggi. Lagi-lagi, jantung kita yang jadi korban dari begadang. Tidak hanya jantung, begadang juga menyebabkan banyak masalah kesehatan lain, seperti diabetes, gangguan pencernaan, gangguan pernapasan, gangguan psikologis (seperti gangguan kecemasan, depresi, paranoia), dan gangguan neurologis (seperti susah konsentrasi dan memproses informasi). Berbagai masalah ini timbul dari kegiatan buruk lain yang dilakukan sambil begadang, seperti ngemil makanan tidak sehat, merokok, dan minum alkohol. 

Yuk kurangi begadang!

Begadang sepertinya sudah dinormalisasi di kehidupan zaman sekarang. Tidak jarang jam kerja orang menjadi berantakan semenjak diberlakukan Work From Home dan kuliah online. Bangun pagi untuk bergabung meeting online, lalu ditinggal tidur dan ujung-ujungnya bekerja pada saat malam hari. Kebiasaan ini membuat orang bekerja atau nugas sampai larut malam, bahkan dini hari. Padahal, mereka harus bangun pagi lagi untuk melakukan kegiatan yang sama.

Yuk mulai kurangi kebiasaan tersebut. Cobalah bekerja di jam kerja normal, yaitu sekitar jam 08.00-17.00 atau 09.00-18.00. Untuk kamu yang masih sekolah dan kuliah, mungkin mengikuti jam kerja normal akan lebih sulit karena kamu memiliki tugas dan kegiatan organisasi yang harus dilakukan di luar jam belajar formal. Tapi, kamu tetap harus mengatur batasan antara jam kerja itu dengan jam istirahatmu. Misalnya, kamu kuliah di jam 10.00-16.00, lalu aturlah jam lain untuk mengerjakan tugas dan kegiatan lainnya, seperti di jam 19.00-22.00. Penting juga untuk menyisihkan akhir pekanmu untuk benar-benar bebas dari pekerjaan karena bukankah itu arti dari akhir pekan?

Batasan jam dan hari kerja tersebut dibuat agar kamu punya waktu istirahat yang bisa digunakan dengan sebaik-baiknya. Misalnya, dengan berhenti bekerja di jam 18.00, kamu bisa menggunakan seluruh sisa malam untuk menonton Netflix, hangout bersama teman, atau sekadar rebahan di kamar. Kamu pun bisa langsung tidur pada jam yang reasonable atau tepat di saat kamu mengantuk tanpa dihantui beban pekerjaan. Jangan lupa juga untuk mendapatkan waktu tidur yang cukup, yaitu sekitar 7-9 jam per hari untuk orang dewasa dan 8-10 jam per hari untuk remaja (Halodoc, 2018). 

Maka dari itu, mulailah kurangi begadang demi kesehatan. Walaupun efek buruknya tidak langsung terasa untuk sebagian orang, kamu tanpa sadar sudah menabung masalah-masalah kecil yang bisa berujung fatal. Kalau kamu begadang karena tuntutan pekerjaan, coba sekeras mungkin untuk konsisten dengan jam kerja yang ada. Kamu bahkan bisa membicarakannya dengan atasan maupun kolegamu untuk meluruskan kondisi tersebut. Ingat, kamu bukan robot. Tubuhmu sangat membutuhkan istirahat yang cukup untuk bisa berfungsi dengan normal dan maksimal.

Ingatkan juga orang-orang terdekatmu untuk tidak melakukan kesalahan ini. Kamu mungkin kenal anggota keluarga, teman, atau teman kerja yang suka begadang. Ajaklah mereka untuk sebisa mungkin menghindari kebiasaan tersebut, apa pun alasannya. Kita harus sama-sama memahami bahwa segala hal yang berlebihan itu tidak baik, termasuk melakukan suatu kegiatan sampai larut malam.

Referensi

Adhi, I. S. (2020, December 29). 10 Dampak Buruk Kurang Tidur yang Perlu Diwaspadai. Kompas.com. Retrieved from: https://health.kompas.com/read/2020/12/29/200700768/10-dampak-buruk-kurang-tidur-yang-perlu-diwaspadai?page=all 

Halodoc. (2018, May 23). Berapa Jam Waktu Tidur yang Ideal?. Retrieved from: https://www.halodoc.com/artikel/berapa-jam-waktu-tidur-yang-ideal- 

Indrasty, R. (2021, July 16). Selain Kasus Pria Alami Koma Setelah Tidur di Atas Jam 12 Malam, Wanita Asal Indonesia Ini Justru Meninggal Akibat Begadang. Grid.id. Retrieved from: https://www.grid.id/read/042806160/selain-kasus-pria-alami-koma-setelah-tidur-di-atas-jam-12-malam-wanita-asal-indonesia-ini-justru-meninggal-akibat-begadang?page=all 

Mardatila, A. (2020, September 16). Dampak Kurang Tidur bagi Kesehatan Tubuh, Serang Saraf hingga Imun. Merdeka.com. Retrieved from: https://www.merdeka.com/sumut/dampak-kurang-tidur-bagi-kesehatan-tubuh-serang-saraf-hingga-imun-kln.html 

Putri, G. S. (2018, April 13). Bukti Baru, Begadang Tingkatkan Risiko Kematian Dini. Kompas.com. Retrieved from: https://sains.kompas.com/read/2018/04/13/113000423/bukti-baru-begadang-tingkatkan-risiko-kematian-dini?page=all 

Ramadhan, K. (2016, June 24). Awas, Begadang Bisa Picu Penyakit Jantung. Klikdokter. Retrieved from: https://www.klikdokter.com/info-sehat/read/2697752/awas-begadang-bisa-picu-penyakit-jantung

Blood In Every Aspect of Our Lives: From Donor to Dengue

Written by Amaranila Nariswari, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

Have you ever noticed that in life, we encounter many things related to blood? In horror movies, blood was added to give scarier effects. In medical science, blood can save someone’s life, and of course, we have blood in our bodies! Blood has so many functions. The red ones carry oxygen from our lungs to all body parts. It also takes carbon dioxide back to our lungs, preventing us from getting poisoned from it. On the other hand, white blood cells help fight infections. They are in charge of healing our wounds and protecting us from mutated cells like cancer. I wonder what blood tastes like. Not in a vampire-blood-eating sense, but more to why mosquitoes need to get a sip of our blood. Anyway, while we’re talking about blood, do you know that today is World Blood Donor Day? If you don’t, then now you know! However, do you also know that tomorrow is ASEAN Dengue Day? What a coincidence! So, why don’t we discuss both while we’re at it? 

When I was in High School, the red cross organization of my school often conducted a blood donor program. I really wanted to participate since I believe donating blood is an act of bravery that requires a lot of willingness, and that every drop of blood is highly needed. However, I never had the chance to! Usually, I fail the blood pressure test as my blood pressure is low since I always go to sleep late and skip my breakfast before school. Since the Covid-19 pandemic began, the number of people interested in donating their blood  has decreased, while people needing blood transfusion doesn’t seem to lessen. Indeed, it is risky to donate your blood amidst the pandemic, but if you’re healthy and interested in doing it, don’t hesitate to get your blood checked and see if it fits the red cross organization’s criteria for a blood donor. Citing the World Health Organization (WHO), a sufficient quantity of blood products is the key  to an effective health system (WHO, n.d). It might seem scary at first, but so many good things come from donating your blood. In fact, it helps your blood to circulate and regenerate! Don’t forget to eat a balanced diet before, and after you donate your blood, you’ll feel refreshed after.

Here, I’ll help you check out a few things you need to know before you go right away to donate your blood. First thing first, if you’re in Indonesia, make sure you’re over 17 years old and weigh more than 45 kilograms (PMI, 2016). If you’re less than 45 kilos, you might pass out once your blood is taken! You will be the one needing it most then, and you DON’T want it to happen, do you? Next, I’m hoping you wouldn’t make the same mistake: I went to sleep late the day before and skipped breakfast. Remember, you need the energy to donate your blood, and the only way to have that energy is by consuming a balanced and nutritious diet. Make sure you’re not pregnant or in a condition that doesn’t support you to donate your blood (PMI, 2016). Always consult and be honest with the medical personnel about your health condition to prevent unwanted side effects. You can always check out your local red cross organization’s website for further information regarding blood donors. 

However, if you feel sick and  enervate, I advise you to get your blood tested to see if there are problems with your blood. One of the most common sicknesses related to blood is dengue fever. You might wonder why in Indonesia, this sickness is called “Demam Berdarah Dengue”, and here’s why: dengue fever can escalate to a dangerous state  where people have low blood platelets, blood plasma leakage, and low blood pressure to an extreme level if the sickness develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever (Kularatne, 2015). According to WHO (2022), dengue fever is an illness caused by the dengue virus. There are four kinds of dengue serotypes, and each person can get infected all FOUR times! It is a mosquito-borne disease, so its spread is from infected female mosquito bites feeding, especially Aedes aegypti (WHO, 2022). When one gets an infection from this virus, they usually show symptoms through a high fever, muscle and joint pains, a severe headache, and even vomiting. One of many things you need to know about the sickness is that dengue fever happens in many hot and humid places like in Southeast Asia and Latin America, especially during the rainy season.

Dengue fever can be prevented by cleaning the environment thoroughly, removing egg-laying habitats like puddles, disposing of your wastes properly, and regularly covering or emptying water storage containers (Break Dengue, n.d). If someone shows symptoms of dengue fever, they should immediately consult a health facility and consume a diet consisting of enough nutrition, especially vitamins, to help the body produce more platelets. Do not ignore the symptoms that appear because, at some level, dengue can be fatal. Now that you know a few more things regarding blood-related aspects in your lives, please give more attention to your health. Make sure that you eat a nutritious diet and take good care of your environment. Remind your loved ones to do the same to ensure a more healthy lifestyle. When we’re aware about our environment and health, not only do we save ourselves, but we save others, too!

References:

Break Dengue. (n.d). How to prevent the transmission of dengue virus. Break Dengue. Retrieved from https://www.breakdengue.org/toolkits/keep-dengue-away/?utm_source=googlegrant&utm_medium=ad&utm_campaign=toolkits&gclid=Cj0KCQjwvqeUBhCBARIsAOdt45b_AaFChe3e7iXIpBQBCnriKBVT-yTvFkIg-4hqf0709Cz5XaY72XYaApoiEALw_wcB 

Kularatne, S. (2015). Dengue fever. BMJ; 351. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h466

PMI. 2016. Syarat untuk Menjadi Donor Darah. PMI. Retrieved from http://ayodonor.pmi.or.id/about.php 

WHO. (n.d). World Blood Donor Day. WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/campaigns/world-blood-donor-day 

WHO. (2022). Dengue and severe dengue key facts. WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue

Gratis Vaksin Kanker Serviks: Harga Kecil Demi Keselamatan Anak Gadis Kita

Written by Maria Olivia Laurent, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

Kabar gembira untuk perempuan Indonesia! Seperti yang telah ramai beredar di berita beberapa waktu lalu, pemerintah akan segera mewajibkan pemberian vaksin kanker serviks atau Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) secara gratis mulai tahun ini. Rencananya, program ini akan dimulai pada bulan Agustus dan September 2022 seiringan dengan kegiatan Bulan Imunisasi Anak Sekolah (BIAS). Di bawah naungan Kementerian Kesehatan (Kemenkes), pemberian vaksin HPV bertujuan sebagai tindakan pencegahan penyakit kanker serviks dan penerapan kebutuhan kesehatan dasar masyarakat. Imunisasi gratis ini ditargetkan untuk anak perempuan di rentang usia 11 sampai 12 tahun, atau kelas 5 dan 6 SD, dan akan dimulai di 11 kabupaten/kota di DKI Jakarta, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Bali, Sulawesi Utara, Sulawesi Tenggara, Gorontalo, dan Bali. Pihak sekolah bertugas untuk memfasilitasi program ini dan diharapkan bisa mencapai cakupan 95 persen dari target. 

Sebelum kita membahas program ini lebih lanjut, yuk kenali dulu apa itu kanker serviks dan mengapa vaksin HPV sangat dibutuhkan. Kanker serviks muncul ketika sel-sel di leher rahim bermutasi secara abnormal dan tidak terkendali, yang mengakibatkan tumor pada jaringan organ. Tumor ganas ini kemudian berkembang menjadi kanker serviks. Penyebabnya pun bervariasi, bisa karena penularan saat hubungan seksual, mengonsumsi obat-obatan, merokok, kekebalan tubuh yang lemah, maupun faktor genetik. Kanker serviks menyerang wanita di semua usia, namun wanita yang belum vaksin HPV memiliki risiko yang jauh lebih tinggi. 

Kanker serviks adalah salah satu jenis kanker yang paling banyak menelan korban di dunia. Menurut data Kemenkes, kanker ini menempati posisi kedua kanker yang paling umum diderita wanita Indonesia dan setidaknya ada 15.000 kasus kanker serviks terjadi tiap tahunnya (Halodoc, 2019). Rata-rata kematiannya pun mencapai 13,9 per 100.000 penduduk. Data WHO menunjukkan bahwa 90% kasus kanker serviks terjadi di negara berkembang, termasuk Indonesia, karena keterbatasan akses skrining, deteksi dini, dan vaksin HPV. Kesadaran masyarakat pun masih rendah karena kurangnya sosialisasi. Hal inilah yang menjadi pertimbangan kuat pemerintah menerbitkan program vaksin HPV guna menekan angka kejadiannya sehingga bisa teratasi di tahap awal. 

Gejala yang timbul pun baru terasa saat sudah memasuki stadium serius. Maka dari itu, penting untuk kita ketahui tanda-tandanya terlebih dahulu agar dapat segera ditangani. Gejalanya meliputi: pendarahan tidak wajar dari vagina saat menstruasi atau berhubungan seks, nyeri pada panggul dan pinggang, badan lemas, berat badan menurun drastis, dan keputihan yang tidak normal seperti bau menyengat atau disertai darah. Infeksi ini disebabkan oleh virus HPV, namun tidak semua virus HPV dapat menyebabkan kanker serviks. Dari ratusan jenis virus HPV, hanya 14 jenis yang dapat menyebabkan kanker, dan 70% kasus disebabkan oleh virus HPV tipe 16 dan 18. Vaksin yang diberikan pun tersedia dalam beberapa jenis menyesuaikan dengan varian virus HPV. Beberapa diantaranya adalah (Alodokter, 2022):

  1. Vaksin Cervarix

Vaksin ini digunakan untuk mencegah kanker serviks yang disebabkan oleh varian HPV-16 dan HPV-18 dan diberikan kepada wanita berusia 9-25 tahun.

  1. Vaksin Gardasil

Vaksin ini dapat mencegah tidak hanya kanker serviks, namun juga kanker vulva serta kanker lainnya pada vagina dan anus. Selain HPV 16 dan 18, vaksin ini juga bisa mencegah varian HPV 6 dan 11 yang menyebabkan kutil kelamin. Vaksin ini dapat diberikan ke wanita maupun pria.

  1. Vaksin Gardasil 9

Pengembangan dari vaksin sebelumnya, vaksin ini dapat mencegah HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, dan 58. Dapat diberikan ke pria dan wanita usia 9-45 tahun.

Untuk pemberian dosis vaksin HPV pun juga berbeda berdasarkan usia. Dosis vaksin HPV untuk anak usia di bawah 15 tahun diberikan sebanyak 2 kali, dengan jarak dosis kedua 6-12 bulan setelah dosis pertama. Sementara untuk remaja dan dewasa diberikan sebanyak 3 kali dosis dalam jarak periode 6 bulan. 

Namun, sama seperti kebijakan baru lainnya, program vaksin gratis ini menuai beberapa kontra dari masyarakat. Yang pertama, beberapa kelompok menganggap program ini menghabiskan uang negara. Padahal, menggratiskan imunisasi dan vaksin merupakan salah satu kewajiban negara dalam memfasilitasi kesehatan masyarakatnya. Sudah ada beberapa program gratis yang diimplementasikan sejak bertahun-tahun lalu, seperti imunisasi polio, campak, hepatitis, dan yang terbaru, vaksin Covid-19. Pemerintah perlu lebih giat lagi mengedukasi masyarakat agar tidak timbul masalah lanjutan yang bisa menghalangi program vaksin ini. 

Kontra kedua berkaitan dengan syarat dan ketentuan, yakni mengapa vaksin kanker serviks ini hanya digratiskan untuk rentang usia tertentu saja dan wanita di luar kategori tersebut harus membayar sendiri. Hal ini dijawab langsung oleh Menteri Kesehatan Budi Gunadi Sadikin di tayangan Youtube Kemenkes. Beliau memaparkan bahwa alasan vaksin HPV hanya digratiskan untuk anak SD adalah karena efektifitas. Vaksin diberikan ke anak gadis yang belum menstruasi dan melakukan hubungan seksual agar tingkat efektifitas pencegahan lebih tinggi daripada kelompok remaja dan dewasa. Ia kemudian menekankan bahwa sistem vaksin ini adalah pencegahan, bukan pengobatan, dan paling tepat disasarkan di usia anak-anak. 

Isu terakhir adalah munculnya beberapa hoaks di media sosial yang mengakibatkan orang tua ragu. Untungnya, Kemenkes cepat tanggap dalam menepis hoaks-hoaks seperti vaksin mengakibatkan menopause dini atau kemandulan melalui laman resmi mereka. Informasi ini juga disebarluaskan oleh Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika (Kominfo) yang menekankan bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) dengan penggunaan vaksin HPV. Malah, vaksin HPV penting untuk menghindari penyakit-penyakit lain yang berhubungan dengan kanker serviks karena fungsinya sebagai antibodi. Vaksin yang diberikan juga telah melalui banyak uji klinis dan mendapatkan ijin resmi dari WHO. 

Sudah paham kan mengapa vaksin kanker serviks ini sangat penting untuk masa depan anak gadis kita? Namun, tugas kita belum selesai. Mari kita kawal program ini agar dapat berjalan dengan lancar sampai ke pelosok Indonesia, dan tetap meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat tentang bahaya kanker serviks. 

Referensi

Vaksin Kanker Serviks Bisa Buat Mandul, Mitos atau Fakta? (2022, April 20). CNN Indonesia. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/gaya-hidup/20220419160921-255-786712/vaksin-kanker-serviks-bisa-buat-mandul-mitos-atau-fakta

Kanker Serviks. (2019, November 26). Halodoc. https://www.halodoc.com/kesehatan/kanker-serviks

Saptohutomo, A. P. (Ed.). (2022, April 20). Ketentuan Terbaru Vaksin Kanker Serviks Gratis untuk Anak. Kompas. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2022/04/20/17523711/ketentuan-terbaru-vaksin-kanker-serviks-gratis-untuk-anak?page=all

Ini Pentingnya Vaksin Kanker Serviks. (2022, April 29). Alodokter. https://www.alodokter.com/ini-pentingnya-vaksin-kanker-serviks#:~:text=Vaksin%20Cervarix%20digunakan%20untuk%20mencegah,wanita%20berusia%209%E2%80%9325%20tahun.

Saving the Groundwater: Bringing Groundwater Awareness through Online Campaign

Project Child Indonesia celebrated 2022 World Water Day by organizing a series of events and campaigns to promote groundwater awareness concurrently with the UN World Water Development Report 2022 and UNESCO’s annual environmental theme. Project Child Indonesia, along with various stakeholders and organizations, created a water week dedicated to not only raising awareness of groundwater but also encouraging people to take action in contributing to protecting our most vital natural resources for the sake of future generations. 

In celebration of World Water Day, Project Child Indonesia raised “Saving the Groundwater with A Healthy Lifestyle” as the main theme of this year’s biggest environmental event yet. The event took place from the 19th to 26th of March 2022, involving a rough estimate of 100+ volunteers and stakeholders taking part in the online campaign and webinar. The webinar was not only made to increase awareness, but to also celebrate the works of dedicated environmental actors and organizations in their respective fields. The key actors are:

  1. Sabrina Farah Salsabila, a master of science candidate from HE Delft Institute for Water Education;
  2. Muhammad Rizky Pratama from Bye Bye Plastic Bag Chapter Jogja, an organization committed to educate and end the use of single plastic use. 

These actors enlightened us on the importance of groundwater and how we can prevent contamination from taking place. In addition to that, this webinar was intended to help us understand how our lifestyle affects the scarcity and quality of our natural resources. It is in fact important to note that our lifestyle greatly affects the environment. Knowing that, any form of action to save the environment can indeed prevent major disasters, so long as we remain consistent. 

To this day, Project Child Indonesia continues to advocate for the cause by collaborating with Campaign.com #ForChange in order to get more people to take action and promote a healthier lifestyle for all. 

https://www.campaign.com/challenge/id/save-the-groundwater-with-healthy-lifestyle

Click the link and take part in our online campaign NOW! By taking part in this campaign, you’re not only doing the Earth a favor, but you’re also supporting our cause and helping our organization to facilitate upcoming projects!

Our speakers and participants

Merayakan Hari Susu Sedunia, Mengingat Kembali Kebutuhan Gizi Seimbang

Written by Amaranila Nariswari, Content Writer Intern at Project Child Indonesia

Selamat menyambut bulan Juni! Tahu tidak, setiap tanggal 1 di bulan Juni, seluruh dunia memperingati Hari Susu Sedunia, lho! Hari perayaan yang cukup unik, ya. Lantas, mengapa sih, kita merayakan hari susu ini? Organisasi Pangan dan Pertanian di bawah Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB) atau yang lebih umum kita kenal sebagai Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) memperingati hari susu sedunia untuk mengingatkan kita akan pentingnya susu sebagai salah satu komponen gizi yang paling penting bagi manusia, khususnya anak-anak. Ingat tidak, kita dulu punya slogan gizi 4 Sehat 5 Sempurna? Angka 4 mewakili makanan pokok yang mencakup protein, karbohidrat, dan vitamin seperti nasi, lauk pauk, dan sayuran serta buah. Adapun angka 5 ditambahkan untuk mewakili susu sebagai komponen penyempurna hidangan (Kemenkes, 2014).


Dewasa ini, istilah 4 Sehat 5 Sempurna sudah jarang kita jumpai karena lebih umum menggunakan istilah Pedoman Gizi Seimbang, atau dalam bahasa Inggris dikenal dengan nama “Nutrition Guide for Balanced Diet”. Istilah 4 Sehat 5 Sempurna dinilai sudah tidak relevan lagi dengan perkembangan zaman dan kebutuhan gizi masyarakat, karena pada dasarnya, kebutuhan gizi manusia berbeda-beda menyesuaikan kondisi tubuh, sehingga tidak dapat dipukul rata jenis makanan yang harus dikonsumsi setiap orang (Kemenkes, 2014). Hayo, makanan kamu sudah sesuai dengan kebutuhan gizimu,  belum? Adapun melalui slogan Pedoman Gizi Seimbang ini, diharapkan masyarakat dapat memperhatikan yang dinamakan sebagai “Prinsip 4 Pilar”. Wah, apa tuh Prinsip 4 Pilar?!, kita bahas satu-persatu, yuk!

Prinsip 4 Pilar atau empat pilar gizi seimbang merujuk pada hasil rekomendasi Konferensi Pangan Sedunia yang dilaksanakan di Roma pada tahun 1992. Rekomendasi ini berupaya untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat dunia akan pentingnya keseimbangan gizi dalam tubuh melalui pemantauan zat gizi yang keluar dan masuk lewat berat badan seseorang secara teratur. Pilar pertama adalah konsumsi anekaragam pangan. Sudah tahu belum, di dunia ini, tidak ada satu pun makanan yang mengandung zat gizi lengkap yang dibutuhkan bagi pertumbuhan sekaligus menjaga kesehatan tubuh kecuali Air Susu Ibu (ASI) untuk bayi yang baru lahir, lho! Oleh sebab itu, penting untuk mengonsumsi makanan beraneka ragam yang mengandung kalori, mineral, serat, vitamin, protein, karbohidrat, juga kandungan gizi lainnya (Kemenkes, 2014). Tentu saja, kita tidak dapat serta-merta mengonsumsi anekaragam pangan tersebut dalam sekali makan, melainkan juga memperhatikan proporsi makanan yang seimbang dan cukup, tidak kurang dan tidak lebih!

Setelah mengonsumsi makanan sesuai dengan kebutuhan gizi tubuh, jangan lupa untuk membiasakan perilaku hidup sehat, ya! Beberapa upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk membiasakan perilaku hidup sehat antara lain: rajin mencuci tangan, memastikan alat makan berada dalam kondisi bersih sebelum digunakan, memastikan makanan yang akan dikonsumsi terbebas dari debu dan lalat, serta rajin membuang sampah sesuai dengan jenisnya. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencegah menularnya penyakit yang bersifat infeksius. Apabila kita mengalami infeksi, akan mudah bagi tubuh untuk mengalami penurunan nafsu makan. Hal ini akan berdampak pada menurunnya zat gizi yang terkandung dalam tubuh, akibatnya, metabolisme tubuh menjadi turun dan kondisi badan menjadi tidak fit (Kemenkes, 2014). Apabila kalian merasakan gejala tubuh yang kurang fit, jangan lupa untuk mengonsumsi makanan yang sehat dan perbanyak cairan dalam tubuh dan suplemen. 

Ketiga, rajin melakukan kegiatan yang memerlukan penggunaan fisik. Ketika tubuh kita aktif, maka metabolisme dalam tubuh kita akan menjadi lancar. Gizi yang ada dalam tubuh tidak tertimbun, melainkan berubah menjadi energi yang kita gunakan untuk melakukan aktivitas tersebut. Secara tidak langsung, kita harus menggantikan gizi yang hilang tersebut agar tubuh tetap memiliki cadangan energi melalui makan makanan bergizi. Terakhir, jangan lupa untuk memantau berat badan kita secara teratur! Pemantauan berat badan ini dilakukan dengan memperhatikan beberapa hal. Misalnya saja, bayi yang baru lahir umumnya menyesuaikan dengan umur, sedangkan orang dewasa lebih ditekankan pada berat dan tinggi badan (Kemenkes, 2014). Harapannya, dengan mengimplementasikan empat pilar gizi seimbang ini, masyarakat khususnya anak-anak, dapat tumbuh dengan baik. 

Kembali membahas soal susu, sudahkah kalian tahu tahu bahwa susu yang berasal dari hewan ternak seperti sapi, kambing, atau kerbau memiliki banyak sekali kandungan gizi, mulai dari lemak, karbohidrat, vitamin, mineral, dan protein (Dispertan Semarang, 2021). Kandungan gizi yang terkandung dalam susu dan produk turunannya tersebut memiliki manfaat yang sangat besar bagi tulang, antara lain mencegah osteoporosis dan membantu tulang agar tetap kuat, terutama bagi anak-anak. Sayangnya, tidak semua orang bisa mengonsumsi susu hewani tersebut. Tidak sedikit orang yang mengonsumsi susu ataupun produk turunan susu lainnya seperti krim dan keju justru mengalami sakit perut. Besar kemungkinan mereka menderita yang dinamakan dengan intoleransi laktosa. Wah, apa lagi, tuh, intoleransi laktosa?! Intoleransi laktosa merupakan gangguan pencernaan yang diakibatkan oleh gagalnya tubuh mencerna laktosa karena tubuh tidak memproduksi enzim laktase. Akibatnya, laktosa tidak dapat diubah menjadi energi sehingga tubuh bereaksi dan menunjukkan hal tersebut melalui diare, kembung, dan sering buang angin (Tamin, 2020).

Jika kalian merupakan penderita intoleransi laktosa, jangan khawatir! Ada banyak sekali pengganti susu hewani yang juga kaya akan manfaat dan zat gizi. Kalian dapat mencoba berbagai jenis susu nabati, seperti susu kedelai, almond, hingga gandum. Selain dikonsumsi untuk diminum secara langsung, aneka ragam susu nabati ini bisa banget, lho, untuk dikreasikan, misalnya saja untuk campuran smoothie, fruit bowl, bahkan kopi! Lezat, dan tentunya bebas laktosa, jadi kalian tidak perlu khawatir mengalami risiko-risiko intoleransi laktosa. ‘Gimana, nih, teman-teman, sudah minum susu belum, hari ini? Yuk seimbangkan kebutuhan gizi kita hari ini dengan minum susu!

Referensi: 

Dinas Pertanian Kota Semarang. (2021). Mengenal Susu (Definisi, Komposisi, dan Jenis). Dinas Pertanian Kota Semarang. Retrieved from https://dispertan.semarangkota.go.id/mengenal-definisi-komposisi/#:~:text=Susu%20merupakan%20bahan%20makanan%20yang,mineral%20(0%2C07%25) 

Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2014). PMK No. 41 tentang Pedoman Gizi Seimbang. Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Retrieved from  http://hukor.kemkes.go.id/uploads/produk_hukum/PMK%20No.%2041%20ttg%20Pedoman%20Gizi%20Seimbang.pdf

Tamin, Rizki. (2020). Intoleransi Laktosa. Alodokter. Retrieved from https://www.alodokter.com/intoleransi-laktosa